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While some people experienced symptomatic improvement with the operation, the improvements were achieved at the cost of creating other impairments.The procedure was controversial from its initial use in part due to the balance between benefits and risks.Many doctors, patients and family members of the period believed that despite potentially catastrophic consequences, the results of lobotomy were seemingly positive in many instances or, at least they were deemed as such when measured next to the apparent alternative of long-term institutionalisation.
The originator of the procedure, Portuguese neurologist António Egas Moniz, shared the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine of 1949 for the "discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy in certain psychoses", The use of the procedure increased dramatically from the early 1940s and into the 1950s; by 1951, almost 20,000 lobotomies had been performed in the United States alone.
The majority of lobotomies were performed on women; A 1951 study of American hospitals found nearly 60% of lobotomy patients were women; data shows 74% of lobotomies in Ontario from 1948–1952 were performed on women.
"We have quoted this data to show not only how groundless but also how dangerous these operations were.
We are unable to explain how their author, holder of a degree in medicine, could bring himself to carry them out ..." The traditional narrative addresses the question of why Moniz targeted the frontal lobes by way of reference to the work of the Yale neuroscientist John Fulton and, most dramatically, to a presentation Fulton made with his junior colleague Carlyle Jacobsen at the Second International Congress of Neurology held in London in 1935.
Some patients died as a result of the operation and others later committed suicide. Others were able to leave the hospital, or became more manageable within the hospital.
Immediately following surgery, patients were often stuporous, confused, and incontinent.
Watts study an X ray before a psychosurgical operation.
It consists of cutting or scraping away most of the connections to and from the prefrontal cortex, the anterior part of the frontal lobes of the brain.
He operated on six chronic patients under his care at the Swiss Préfargier Asylum, removing sections of their cerebral cortex.
Burckhardt's decision to operate was informed by three pervasive views on the nature of mental illness and its relationship to the brain.
Following the operation, spontaneity, responsiveness, self-awareness and self-control were reduced.Tags: Adult Dating, affair dating, sex dating